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Antonio, J, et al. The effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in active men and women. Nutrition 17(3):243-247 (2001). Actively training male and female athletes were given colostrum supplementation or placebo for a period of 8 weeks. Subjects receiving colostrum but not placebo showed an increase in lean body mass.

Berk, LS, et al. The effect of long endurance running on natural killer cells in marathoners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 22(2):207-212 (1990). A significant decrease in natural killer cell populations were seen in marathon runners following three hours of maximal exercise with full recovery of pre-exercise levels by 21 hours. This correlated with increases in cortisol levels during exercise.

Bricker, D.S. Colostrum: implications for accelerated recovery in damaged muscle and cartilage,prevention of some pathogenic disease. The American Chiropractor.pp. 4&5, November 1991.

Brinkworth, GD, et al. Effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on the composition of resistance trained and untrained limbs in healthy young men. European Journal of Applied Physiology 9(11):53-60 (2004). Either bovine colostrum or whey protein were given to young men who were either in training or not in training. Those in the training group who received colostrum showed a significantly greater increase in both upper arm circumference and cross-sectional area compared to those receiving whey, while those who were not in training showed no change.

Buckley, JD, et al. Effect of bovine colostrum on anaerobic exercise performance and plasma insulin-like growth factor I. Journal of Sports Science 21(7):577-588 (2003). Athletes in training were given either bovine colostrum or placebo for 8 weeks. Those receiving colostrum showed a significant increase in peak anaerobic power over placebo.
Buckley, J., et al. "Oral supplementation with bovine colostrum increases vertical jump performance." Presented at 4th Annual Congress of the European College of Sports Science, Rome 14-17 July, 1999.

Burke, ER. Colostrum as an Athletic Enhancer and Help for AIDS. Nutrition Science News May, 1996. While leaky gut is of concern to everyone, it is particularly so for athletes who need to utilize all the nutrients they take in and prevent infection when their immune systems are impaired following exercise. Many athletes suffer irritable bowel syndrome as a result of incomplete digestion of protein supplements. The role of colostrum-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) in healing leaky gut are explored.

Butler AA, Yakar S, Gewolb IH, Karas M, Okubo Y, LeRoith D, Diabetes Branch, NIH, Bethesda, MD, Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signal transduction: at the interface between physiology and cell biology.Page 3, Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 1998 Sep; 121(1):19-26.

Clark J. (1996) Uses of creatine phosphate and creatine supplementation for the athlete. Scientific and Clinical Perspective (1996).

Crooks, C, et al. Bovine colostrum supplementation increases levels of s-IGA in distance runners: a study based on athletes in training for the 2002 Rotorua marathon. Unpublished research. Marathon runners in training were given bovine colostrum or placebo for 12 weeks in a double blind study. Those in the colostrum group showed significantly more secretory IgA (s-IgA) in their saliva than either the placebo group or sedentary controls. The colostrum group also reported a significantly lower rate of upper respiratory infections (URI) during this period.

Coombes JS, Conacher M, Austen SK, Marshall PA. "Dose effects of oral bovine colostrum on physical work capacity in cyclists."Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Jul;34(7):1184-8. Related Articles, Links, Dose effects of oral bovine colostrum on physical work capacity in cyclists. School of Human Movement Studies, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

Liu JL, LeRoith D, Clinical Endocrinology Branch, NIDDKD, NIH, Bethesda, MD, Insulin-like growth factor I is essential for post-natal growth in response to growth hormone. Endocrinology 1999 Nov; 140(11):5178-84.
Hwa V, Oh Y, Rosenfeld RG, Dept. of Pediatrics, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR, The insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) superfamily. Endocr Rev 1999 Dec; 20(6):761-87.

Hofman, Z, et al. The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in elite field hockey players. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 12(4):461-469 (2002). Colostrum supplementation in elite field hockey players, both male and female, resulted in improved sprint performance over placebo.

Kasemkijwattana, C, et al. Use of growth factors to improve muscle healing after strain injury. Clinical Orthopedics 370:272-285 (2000). Muscle injuries, such as strains, are common in athletes. The use of growth factors, such as IGF-1, in treating such injuries is explored.

Kuipers, H, et al. Effects of oral bovine colostrum supplementation on serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels. Nutrition 18(7-8):165-172 (2002). A study for the International Olympic Committee showed no increase in blood IGF-1 or IGF-bp3 levels after 4 weeks time.

Liang, L, et al. [Effect of cytokines on repair of tendon injury] Zhongguo Xiufu Chongjian Waike Zazhi (Chinese) 14(5):283-285 (2000). Cytokines, such as the growth factors, can accelerate tendon repair.

Mero, A, et al. IGF-I, IgA, and IgG responses to bovine colostrum supplementation during training. Journal of Applied Physiology 93(2):732-739 (2002). Colostrum supplementation increases levels of IGF-1 and IgA in training athletes, but the IGF-1 in the colostrum is not absorbed intact.
Nieman, DC, et al. Complement and immunoglobulin levels in athletes and sedentary controls. International Journal of Sports Medicine 10(2):124-128 (1989). Blood levels of complements C3 and C4 but not immunoglobulins decreased during periods of rest, graded maximal exercise and recovery in marathon runners.

Nieman, DC, et al. Effects of long-endurance running on immune system parameters and lymphocyte function in experienced marathoners. International Journal of Sports Medicine 10(5):317-323 (1989). Marathon runners experience a disruption of normal immune function after running long distances, a condition which returns to normal levels following 21 hours of recovery.

Molloy, T, et al. The roles of growth factors in tendon and ligament healing. Sports Medicine 33(5):381-394 (2003). The roles of five different growth factors, IGF-1, TGF-ß, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), in healing tendon and ligament injuries is explored. Each plays a different but vital role in the process.

Mero A, et al. (1997) Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on serum IGF-1, IgG, hormone, and saliva IgA during training. Journal of Applied Physiology. 83:1144-1151.

Sato, K, et al. Improvement of muscle healing through enhancement of muscle regeneration and prevention of fibrosis. Muscle & Nerve 28(3):355-372 (2003). IGF-1 can improve muscle regeneration in injured muscle.
Spagnoli A, Rosenfeld RG, Dept. of Pediatrics, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR, The mechanisms by which growth hormone brings about growth. The relative contributions of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factors. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1996 Sep; (3):615-31.

Sparling PB, Nieman DC, O'Connor PJ. (1993) Selected scientific aspects of marathon racing: an update on fluid replacement, immune function, psychological factors and the gender difference. Sports Medicine. 15:116-132.

Sparling, PB, et al. Selected scientific aspects of marathon racing. An update on fluid replacement, immune function, psychological factors and the gender difference. Sports Medicine 15(2):116-132 (1993). Negative changes to the immune system during long distance running increase the chances of upper respiratory infections in these athletes for a period following exercise. Proper nutrition, adequate rest and appropriate recover between workouts as well as other measures can lessen the risk.

Wu, A.H. & Perryman, M.B. "Clinical applications of muscle enzymes and proteins." Curr Opin Rheumatol, 1992;4(6):815-820.

Zimecki, M, et al. Effect of a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) on the development of hemolytic anemia and survival of New Zealand black (NZB) mice. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 39(5-6):461-467 (1991). Colostrinin (PRP) increased survival in mice susceptible to hemolytic anemia, an autoimmune disease. It is hypothesized the colostrinin induces suppressor cells which slow development of the disease. This suggests that colostrinin may have therapeutic value in treating autoimmune diseases.

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