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Imunološki sistem

Abbas, AK, Murphy, KM, Sher, A. Functional diversity of helper T lymphocytes. Nature 383:787-793 (1996).

Acosta-Altamirano, G, et al. Antiamoebic properties of human colostrum. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 216B:1347-1352 (1987). In addition to its effectiveness against bacterial, viral and fungal infections, colostrum also provides protection against amoebic pathogens.

Akisu, C, et al. Effect of human milk and colostrum on Entamoeba histolyica. World Journal of Gastroenterology 10(5):741-742 (2004). Colostrum was found to provide protection against Entamoeba histolyica, the cause of amoebiasis, a serious, chronic illness characterized by dysentery, gastrointestinal ulceration and abscess formation and intestinal blockage in infants particularly.

Armogida, SA, Yannaras, NM, Melton, AL, Srivastava, MD. (2004). Identification and quantification of innate immune system mediators in human breast milk. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 25(5):297-304. Mediators of the innate immune system were determined in human colostrum. Human neutrophil-derived a-defensin 1 (HNP-1) and human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) were present in high amounts, human alpha-defensin 6 (HD-6) was present in moderate amounts, and HD-5 and HBD-1 were present in the lowest concentrations. HNP-1, HD-5 and HD-6 were present in significantly higher amounts in colostrum than in mature milk. It is believed that the innate immune system provides protection for both maternal breast tissue and the developing digestive system of newborns.

Blach-Olszewska, Z, Janusz, M. Stimulatory effect of ovine colostrinine (a proline-rich polypeptide) on interferons and tumor necrosis factor production by murine resident peritoneal cells. Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 45(1):43-47 (1997).

Boesman-Finkelstein, M., et al., Passive oral immunization of children. Lancet. 1989. 49: p. 1336.

Boldogh, I, Liebenthal, D, Hughes, TK, Juelich, TL, Georgiades, JA, Kruzel, ML, Stanton, GJ. Modulation of 4HNE-mediated signaling by proline-rich peptides from ovine colostrum. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 20(2):125-134 (2003).

Brüssow, H., et al. Bovine milk immunoglobulins for passive immunity to infantile rotavirus gastroenteritis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 25(6):982-986 (1987). Protection against rotavirus, a dangerous pathogen which can cause serious, even fatal diarrhea in infants, can be passed orally through milk or colostrum safely and effectively.

Cesarone, MR, Belcaro, G, Di Renzo, A, Dugall, M, Cacchio, M, Ruffini, I, Pellegrini, L, Del Boccio, G, Fano, F, Ledda, A, Bottari, A, Ricci, A, Stuard, S, Vinciguerra, G. (2007) Prevention of influenza episodes with colostrum compared with vaccination in healthy and high-risk cardiovascular subjects: the epidemiologic study in San Valentino. Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 13(2):13-6. Two month supplementation with oral colostrum was compared to anti-influenza vaccination in the prevention of flu. Colostrum was at least three times more effective than vaccination in preventing flu.

Chaplin, DD. Overview of the human immune response. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 117(Suppl.2):S430-S435 (2006).

Collier, RJ, et al. Factors affecting insulin-like growth factor-I concentration in bovine milk. Journal of Dairy Science 74(9):2905-2911 (1991). IGF-1 levels are highest in colostrum and lower in mature milk. Concentration was not altered by pasteurization (79°C for 45 seconds) but was undetectable at higher temperatures (121°C for 5 minutes) used for infant formula preparation and in commercial infant formula.

De Vinci, C, Levine, PH, Pizza, G, Fudenberg, HH, Orens, P, Pearson, G, Viza, D. Lessons from a pilot study of transfer factor in chronic fatigue syndrome. Biotherapy 9(1-3):87-90 (1996).

Dominguez, E, et al. Effect of heat treatment on the antigen-binding activity of anti-peroxidase immunoglobulins in bovine colostrum. Journal of Dairy Science 80(12):3182-3187 (1997). A negative correlation was made between temperature and time in the denaturation of IgG, i.e. the higher the temperature, the shorter the time needed for denaturation to occur.

Domaraczenko, B, Janusz, M, Orzechowska, B, Jarosz, W, Blach-Olszewska, Z. Effect of proline rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum on virus replication in human placenta and amniotic membrane at term; possible role of endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha. Placenta 20(8):695-701 (1999).

Dwyer, J. M. Manipulating the Immune System with Immune Globulin. New Engl. J. Med. 326(2):107-116. Jan. 9, 1992.

Ebina, T, et al. Passive immunizations of suckling mice and infants with bovine colostrum containing antibodies to human rotavirus. Journal of Medical Virology 38:117-123 (1992). Another study that confirmed that oral immunization via colostrum or milk against rotavirus was possible, safe and effective.

Funatogawa, K, et al. Use of immunoglobulin enriched bovine colostrum against oral challenge with enterohaemorrhagic Eschericia coli O157:H7 in mice. Microbiology and Immunology 46(11):761-766 (2002). Colostrum can prevent infection against food-borne pathogens by preventing them from binding to the intestinal lining.

Godden, SM, et al. Effect of on-farm commercial batch pasteurization of colostrum on colostrum and serum immunoglobulin concentrations in dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science 86(4):1503-1523 (2003). Pasteurization of high quality colostrum reduces IgG concentrations by 23.6-58.5%.

Haynes, B. F. and Fauci, A. S. Introduction to Clinical Immunology. Part Two. Section 2. in: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Eleventh Edition. Eds. E. Braunwald et al. pp.328-337. McGraw Hill Book Co. New York. 1987.

Heaton, P. "Cryptosporidiosis and acute leukemia." Arch Dis Child, 1990;65(7):813-814. No abstract available.

Hagiwara, K, et al. Oral administration of IL-1 beta enhanced the proliferation of lymphocytes and the O(2)(-) production of neutrophil in newborn calf. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 81(1-2):59-69 (2001). Interleukin-1ß in colostrum stimulates the immune system by increasing the amount of peripheral white blood cells, especially monocytes.

Ho, PC, Lawton, JWM. Human colostral cells: Phagocytosis and killing of E. Coli and C. Albicans. Journal of Pediatrics 93(6):910 -915 (1978). Cells found in colostrum are able to ingest and kill both E. coli and Candida.

Inglot, A.D, Janusz, M, Lisowski, J. Colostrinine: a proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum is a modest cytokine inducer in human leukocytes. Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 44(4):215-224 (1996).

Janusz, M, Staroscik, K, Zimecki, M, Wieczorek, Z, Lisowski, J. A proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) with immunoregulatory properties isolated from ovine colostrum. Murine thymocytes have on their surface a receptor specific for PRP. Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 34(4):427-436 (1986).

Janusz, M, Lisowski, J. Proline-rich polypeptide (PRP)--an immunomodulatory peptide from ovine colostrum. Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 41(5-6):275-279 (1993).

Julius, MH, et al. A colostral protein that induces the growth and differentiation of resting B lymphocytes. Journal of Immunology 140:1366-1371 (1988). Colostrinin has also been shown to induce the growth and differentiation of resting B lymphocytes. T and B lymphocytes are the two main types of lymphocytes involved in the immune response.

Julius, MH, Janusz, M, Lisowski, J. A colostral protein that induces the growth and differentiation of resting B lymphocytes. Journal of Immunology 140(5):1366-371 (1988).

Janusz, M, Wieczorek, Z, Spiegel, K, Kubik, A, Szewczuk, Z, Siemion, I, Lisowski, J. Immunoregulatory properties of synthetic peptides, fragments of a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) from ovine colostrum. Molecular Immunology 24(10):1029-1031 (1987).

Khan, A. Non-specificity of transfer factor. Annals of Allergy 38(5):320-322 (1977).

Kruzel, ML, Janusz, M, Lisowski, J, Fischleigh, RV, Georgiades, JA. Towards an understanding of biological role of colostrinin peptides. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 17(3):379-389 (2001).

Kubis, A, Marcinkowska, E, Janusz, M, Lisowski, J. Studies on the mechanism of action of a proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP): effect on the stage of cell differentiation. Peptides 26(11):2188-2192 (2005).

Khazenson L.B., et al. "[Activity of bovine colostral IgG in the human digestive tract]." Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol, Immunobiol, 1980;9:101-106.

Korhonen, H, et al. Bovine milk antibodies for health. British Journal of Nutrition 84(Suppl.1):S135-S146 (2000). Bovine colostrum provides safe, effective protection against many pathogens. This natural immune protection can be extended by hyperimmunizing cows against specific pathogens.

Ogra, P. et al. Colostrum Derived Immunity and Maternal Neonatal Interaction. Annals NY Acad. Sci. 409:82-92. 1983.

Palmer, EL, et al. Antiviral activity of colostrum and serum Immunoglobulins A and G. Journal of Medical Virology 5:123-129 (1980). Virus-specific IgA was discovered in colostrum, including anti-polio antibody.

Pineiro, A.,et al. "Trypsin inhibitor from cow colostrum., Isolation, electrophoretic characterization and immunologic properties." Biochem Biophys Acta (Amsterdam), 1975;379(1): 201-206.

Lisowski, J, Wieczorek, Z, Janusz, M, Zimecki, M. Proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) from ovine colostrum. Bi-directional modulation of binding of peanut agglutinin, resistance to hydrocortisone, and helper activity in murine thymocytes. Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 36(4):381-393 (1988).

Li-Chan, E, et al. Stability of bovine immunoglobulins to thermal treatment and processing. Food Research International 28(1):9-16 (1995). Pasteurized milk, reconstituted skim milk powder and whey from cheddar cheese all showed high levels of IgG while canned evaporated milk and UHT sterilized milk had little or no IgG.

Majumdar, AS, et al. Protective properties of anti-cholera antibodies in human colostrum. Infection and Immunity 36:962-965 (1982). Colostrum was able to prevent infection with cholera. Colostrum samples from India, where cholera is common, had much higher levels of anti-cholera IgA than those from Sweden, where cholera is rare.

Meylan, M, et al. Survival of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and preservation of immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum under experimental conditions simulating pasteurization. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(11):1580-1585 (1996). Pasteurization produced a mean loss of 12.3% of the IgG in colostrum.

McGuirk, P, Mills, KH. Pathogen-specific regulatory T cells provoke a shift in the Th1/Th2 paradigm in immunity to infectious diseases. Trends in Immunology 23:450-455 (2002).

Mosmann, TR, Cherwinski, H, Bond, MW, et al. Two types of murine helper T cell clone. I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins. Journal of Immunology 136:2348-2357 (1986).

Mosmann, TR, Coffman, RL. TH1 and TH2 cells: different patterns of lymphokine secretion lead to different functional properties. Annual Reviews of Immunology 7:145-173 (1989).

Mosmann, TR, Sad, S. The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more. Immunology Today 17:138-146 (1996).

Staroscik, K, Janusz, M, Zimecki, M, Wieczorek, Z, Lisowski, J. Immunologically active nonapeptide fragment of a proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum: amino acid sequence and immunoregulatory properties. Molecular Immunology 20(12):1277-1282 (1983).

Siemion, IZ, Folkers, G, Szewczuk, Z, Jankowski, A, Kubik, A, Voelter, W. Peptides related to the active fragment of "proline rich polypeptide", an immunoregulatory protein of the ovine colostrum. Spectroscopic and computer modeling studies. International Journal of Protein and Peptide Research 36(6):506-514 (1990).

Steven J. Bock, MD, PRPS and It's Clinical Applications. International Journal of Integrative Medicine.

Solomons, N. W., Modulation of the immune system and the response against pathogens with bovine colostrum concentrates. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56(Suppl.3):S24-S28 (2002).

Stoff, J. A., The Use of Dialyzable Bovine Colostrum Extract in Conjunction with a Holistic Treatment Model for Natural Killer Cell Stimulation in Chronic Illness. Obtained by Matol Botanical International (1-800-363-1890).

Stoff, J, et al. An Examination of Immune Response Modulation in Humans by Ai/E¹º® Utilizing A Double Blind Study. Townsend Letter April, 2002. Peptides in a colostrum extract increased levels of immune activity in healthy subjects.

Stephan, W., et al., Antibodies from colostrum in oral immunotherapy. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 1990. 28: p. 19-23.

Solomons NW. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Aug;56 Suppl 3:S24-8. Related Articles, Links, Modulation of the immune system and the response against pathogens with bovine colostrum concentrates. Center for Studies of Sensory Impairment, Aging and Metabolism, (CeSSIAM), Guatemala City, Guatemala.

Sabin, A. & Fieldsteel, A.H. "Antipoliomyelitic activity of human and bovine colostrum and milk." Pediatrics, 1962:105-115.

Sandholm, M. & Hankanen-Buzalski, T. "Colostral trypsininhibitor capacity in different animal species." Acta Vet Scand, 1979;20(4):469-476.

Sabin, AB. Anti-poliomyelitic substance in milk from human beings and certain cows. Journal of Diseases of Children 80:866-870 (1950). Seminal study by Dr. Albert Sabin, inventor of the oral polio vaccine, in which he discovered antibodies against the polio virus in colostrum.

Solomons, NW. Modulation of the immune system and the response against pathogens with bovine colostrum concentrates. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56(Suppl.3):524-528 (2002). The ability of colostrum to protect infants against pathogens, specifically those which cause gastroenteritis and severe diarrhea, makes it an ideal, cheap, safe and effective means of protecting children in those parts of the world where medical assistance is lacking or substandard and could save thousands of lives each year.

Stephan, W, et al. Antibodies from colostrum in oral immunotherapy. Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry 28:19-23 (1990). An immunoglobulin preparation from pooled bovine colostrum was found to be very effective in treating severe diarrhea, such as often found in AIDS patients.

Sirota, L, et al. Effect of human colostrum on interleukin-2 production and natural killer cell activity. Archive of Diseases in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition 72(3):F99-102 (1995). Colostrum stimulates or inhibits the production of IL-2 depending on its concentration. It also inhibits the activity of natural killer cells, but the production of IL-2 reverses this effect. This is thought to be another way that colostrum modulates the immune system response.

Staroscik, K, Janusz, M, Zimecki, M, Wieczorek, Z, Lisowski, J. Immunologically active nonapeptide fragment of a proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum: amino acid sequence and immunoregulatory properties. Molecular Immunology 20(12):1277-1282 (1983).

van Hooijdonk, AC, Kussendrager, KD, Steijns, JM. In vivo antimicrobial and antiviral activity of components in bovine milk and colostrum involved in non-specific defense. British Journal of Nutrition 84(Suppl.1):S127-S134 (2000). Lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase, both present in colostrum in large amounts, provide non-specific defense against a broad spectrum of pathogens, including bacteria and viruses. This is significant both for the protection of commercially important animals as well as humans.

Wieczorek, Z, Zimecki, M, Spiegel, K, Lisowski, J, Janusz, M. Differentiation of T cells into helper cells from immature precursors: identification of a target cell for a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP). Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 37(3-4):313-322 (1989).

Widiasih, DA, et al. Passive transfer of antibodies to Shiga toxin-producing Eschericia coli O26, O111 and O157 antigens in neonatal calves by feeding colostrum. Journal of Veterinary Medicine 66(2):213-215 (2004). Feeding colostrum to calves provided protection against Shiga toxin-producing E. Coli, a particularly deadly strain of E. coli.

Wilson, D.C., J. Immune system breakthrough: colostrum. Journal of Longevity. 4(2), 1998.

Wieczorek, Z, Zimecki, M, Janusz, M, Staroscik, K, Lisowski, J. Proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum: its effect on skin permeability and on the immune response. Immunology 36(4):875-881 (1979).

Zimecki, M, Pierce, CW, Janusz, M, Wieczorek, Z, Lisowski, J. Proliferative response of T lymphocytes to a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP): PRP mimics mitogenic activity of Il-1. Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 35(3):339-349 (1987).

Zimecki, M, Janusz, M, Staroscik, K, Wieczorek, Z, Lisowski, J. Immunological activity of a proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum. Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 26(1-6):23-29 (1978).

Zimecki, M, Lisowski, J, Hraba, T, Wieczorek, Z, Janusz, M, Staroscik, K. The effect of a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) on the humoral immune response. II. PRP induces differentiation of helper cells from glass-nonadherent thymocytes (NAT) and suppressor cells from glass-adherent thymocytes (GAT). Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 32(2):197-201 (1984).

Zimecki, M, Artym, J. Therapeutic properties of proteins and peptides from colostrum and milk. Post?py Higieny i Medycyny Doswiadczalne j 59:309-323 (2005).

Zimecki, M, Staroscik, K, Janusz, M, Lisowski, J, Wieczorek, Z. The inhibitory activity of a proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) on the immune response to polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis (Warszava) 31(6):895-903 (1983).

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