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Akita EM, Li-Chan EC. Isolation of bovine immunoglobulin G subclasses from milk, colostrum, and whey using immobilized egg yolk antibodies. J Dairy Sci 1998; 81: 54-63.

George-Nascimento, C., Lowenson, Jonathan, Borissenko, M., Calderon, A., Medina-Selby, A., Kuo, J., Clarke, S., Randolph, A. Replacement of a Labile Aspartyl Residue Increases the Stability of Human Epidermal Growth Factor. Biochemistry 29 No. 41(1990) 9584 - 9591.

Antonio J. (1998) Can bovine colostrum enhance levels of IGF-1? Muscle and Fitness Magazine, 1998.

Ballard F, Wallace J, Francis G, Read L, Tomas F. (1996) Des (1-3) IGF-I: a truncated form of insulin-like growth factor-I. International Journal of Cellular Biology. 28:1085-1087.

Bergerot, I, et al. Effects of insulin like growth factor-1 and insulin on effector T cells generating autoimmune diabetes. Diabetes & Metabolism 22(4):235-239 (1996). The development of autoimmune diabetes in experimental mice was significantly reduced in those receiving IGF-1 as compared to insulin.

Bhora F, Dunkin B, Batzri S, et al. (1995) Effect of growth factors on cell proliferation and epithelialization in human skin. Journal of Surgery Res. 59:236-244.

Bhora, Y, et al. Effect of growth factors on cell proliferation and epithelialization in human skin. Journal of Surgical Research 59(2):236-244 (1995). Fibroblast growth factor (FGF), IGF-1 and epithelial growth factor (EGF) are important factors in healing skin wounds. EGF in particular is capable of initiating epithelial growth.

Bricker D. (1991) Colostrum: Implications for accelerated recovery in damaged muscle and cartilage, prevention of some pathogenic disease. The American Chiropractor.

Burrin D, Davis T, Ebner S, Schoknecht P, Fiorotto M, Reeds P. (1997) Colostrum enhances the nutritional stimulation of vital organ protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. American Society for Nutritional Sciences.127(7):1284-9.
Burrin DG, Shulman RJ, Reeds PJ, Davis TA, Gravitt KR. (1992) Porcine colostrum and milk stimulate visceral organ and skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal piglets. Journal of Nutrition. 122:1205-1213.

Cass TL. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, Somatomedin C) blood levels are not associated with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels or prostate cancer: A study of 749 patients. Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Demarco C. (1998) Anti-aging breakthrough: Homeopathic growth factors. Let's Live.

Dohm, GL, et al. IGF-I-stimulated glucose transport in human skeletal muscle and IGF-I resistance in obesity and NIDDM. Diabetes 39(9):1028-1032 (1990). IGF-1 stimulates glucose transport by IGF-1 receptors in skeletal muscle, thus alleviating the hyperglycemia observed in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Significantly, muscle from obese patients was resistant to this effect.

Donovan, SM, Hartke, JL, Monaco, MH, Wheeler, MB. (2004) Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and Piglet Intestinal Development. Journal of Dairy Science 87(E Suppl.):E46-54. Piglets suckling from IGF-1 transgenic sows (i.e. sows that have been transgenically altered to overexpress IGF-1 in their milk) showed increased villus growth and disaccharidase activity, indicating improved intestinal health.

Francis G, Read L, Ballard J, et al. (1986) Purification and partial sequence analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 from bovine colostrum. Journal of Biochemistry. 233:207-213.

Francis G, Upton F, Ballard J, McNeil K, Wallace J. (1988) Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 in bovine colostrum. Journal of Biochemistry. 251:95-103.

Fryburg D. (1995) Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 enhance human skeletal muscle protein anabolism during Hyperaminoacidemia by different mechanisms. Journal of Clinical Investigations. 96:1722-1729.

Ginjala V, Pakkanen R. (1998) Determination of transforming growth factor-B1 (TGF-B1) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in bovine colostrum samples. Journal of Immunoassay. 19:195-207.

Handsell KL, Baumrucker CR, Kensinger RS. (1993) Effects of elevated blood insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentration upon IGF-I in bovine mammary secretions during the colostrum phase. Journal of Endocrinology. 137:223-230.

Hasdai, D, et al. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I cause coronary vasorelaxation in vitro. Hypertension 32:228-234 (1998). IGF-1 and insulin affect vasorelaxation in coronary arteries, possibly by activating potassium channels.

Hyde, C, et al. Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGF) and IGF-Binding Proteins Bound to Vitronectin Enhance Keratinocyte Protein Synthesis and Migration. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 122(5):1198-1206 (2004). IGF-II binds directly to vitronectin, a component of the extracellular skin matrix, to enhance protein synthesis and migration by skin cells in wound healing and skin regeneration.

Juskevich J. (1990) Bovine Growth Hormone: Human Food Safety Evaluation. Science. 249:875-883.

Kirkpatrick CH. (1993) Structural nature and function of transfer factors. Annals New York Academy of Sciences. 685:362-8.

Marcotty C, Frankenne F, Van Beeumen J, Maghuin-Rogister G, Hennen G. (1991). Insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) from cow colostrum: Purification and characterization. Growth Regulation. 1(2):56-61.

Marquardt H, Lioubin MN, Ikeda T. (1987) Complete amino acid sequence of human transforming growth factor type beta 2. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262:12127-12131.

Mero A, Kahkonen J, Nykanen T, Parviainen T, Jokinen I, Takala T, Nikula T, Rasi S, Leppaluoto J. Appl Physiol. 2002 Aug;93(2):732-9. Related Articles, IGF-I, IgA, and IgG responses to bovine colostrum supplementation during training. Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 83, No. 4, pp. 1144-1151, October 1997

Miers W, Barrett E. (1998) The role of insulin and other hormones in the regulation of amino acid and protein metabolism in humans. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. 9(2-4):235-53.

Noda K, Umeda M, Ono T. (1984) Transforming growth factor activity in human colostrum. Gann. 75:109-12.

Nowak J, Olszewski J, Kozal E. (1994) Insulin and sugar concentration changes in mammary secretion in sheep during the periparturient period. Reprod. Nutritional Development. 34:3-8.

Nowak J. (1990) Insulin and glucose concentration changes in newborn piglets after suckling the colostrum from insulin administered sows. Acta Physiol. 41(7):155-62.

Oda S, Satoh H, Sugawara T, et al. (1989) Insulin-like growth factor-I, GH, insulin and glucagon concentrations in bovine colostrum and in plasma of dairy cows and neonatal calves around parturition. Comp. Biochemical Physiology. 94A:805-808.

Oda, S., et al., Insulin-like growth factor-l (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH), insulin and glucagon concentrations in bovine colostrum and in plasma of dairy cows and neonatal calves around parturition. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1989. 94A(4): p. 805-808.

Oz, HS, Ray, M, Chen, TS, McClain, CJ. (2004) Efficacy of a transforming growth factor beta 2 containing nutritional support formula in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23(3):220-6. Mice with an experimentally-induced inflammatory bowel disease fed a diet rich in transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-ß2) gained more weight, did not develop diarrhea or prolapse, had lower pathological scores and lower serum amyloid (SAA). This study supports the use of TGF-ß2 diets in the treatment of Crohn’s disease.

Pakkanen R, Aalto J. (1997) Review paper: Growth factors and antimicrobial factors of bovine colostrum. International Dairy Journal. 7:285-297.

Pakkanen R. (1998) Determination of transforming growth factor-fl2 (TGF-fl2) in bovine colostrum samples. Journal of Immunoassay. 19:23-37.

Rosenthal S, Brown E, Brunetti A, Goldfine I. (1991) Fibroblast growth factor inhibits insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) gene expression and increases IGF-I receptor abundance in BC3H-1 muscle cells. Molecular Endocinology. 5:678-684.

Rudman, D.; et al. Effects of Human Growth Hormone in Men over 60 Years Old. N. Eng. J. Med. 323:1-6, 1990.

Rudman, D, et al. Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old. New England Journal of Medicine 323(1):1-6 (1990). The decline in activity of the growth hormone-IGF-1 system may be related to the loss of lean muscle mass and increase in fat mass with aging. Administration of growth hormone to men over 60 years of age resulted in increased IGF-1 levels in the blood similar to that found in much younger men, increase lean body mass, decreased fat mass and an increase in skin thickness.

Russell, JW, Feldman, EL. Insulin-like growth factor-I prevents apoptosis in sympathetic neurons exposed to high glucose. Hormone and Metabolic Research 31(2-3):90-96 (1999). Using an experimental in vitro rat superior cervical ganglion model of diabetic neuropathy, high levels of glucose, such as are found in uncontrolled diabetes, inhibits neurite (cell processes growing from nerve cells in cultures) growth, reduction in neurite size, beading of neurites, neurite retraction and apoptosis (cell death) in neurons. This is reversed by IGF-1 which exhibits a neuroprotective effect on these neurons. This suggests that IGF-1 may be of use in preventing diabetic neuropathy in vivo.

Sara VR, Hall K. (1990) Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins. Physiological Reviews. 70:591-606.

Shimizu M, Webster C, Morgan DO, Blau HM, Roth RA. (1986) Insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors and responses in cultured human muscle cells. American Journal of Physiology. 251:E611-5.

Shing Y, Klagsbrun M. (1987) Purification and characterization of a bovine colostrum-derived growth factor. Molecular Endocrinology. 1:335-338.
Skottner A, Arrhenius-Nyberg V, Kanje M, Fryklund L. (1990) Anabolic and tissue repair functions of recombinant insulin-like growth factor I. Acta Pediatric Scand. 367:63-66.

Sporn M, Roberts A, Shull J, Smith J, Ward J. (1983) Polypeptide transforming growth factors isolated from bovine sources and used for wound healing in vivo. Science. 219(4590):1329-31.

Shomali M, Wolfsthal S. (1997) The use of anti-aging hormones. Maryland Medical Journal. 46:181-186.

Tokuyama H, Tokuyama Y, Migita S. (1990) Isolation of two new proteins from bovine colostrum which stimulates epidermal growth factor-dependent colony formation of NRK-49F cells. Growth Factors. 3(2): 105-14.

Tokuyama, H. and Tokuyama, Y. (1989) Bovine colostric transforming growth facto-fI-like peptide that induces growth inhibition and changes in morphology of human osteogenic sarcoma cells (MG-63). Cell Biology International Reports. 13:251-258.

Tokuyama Y. (1993) Purification and identification of TGF-B2-related growth factor from bovine colostrum. Journal of Dairy Research. 60:99-109.
Tollefsen S, Lajara R, McCusker R, Clemmons D, Rotwein P. (1989) Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) in muscle development. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264(23):13810-7.

Tomas F, Knowles S, Owens P, et al. (1991) Increased weight gain, nitrogen retention and muscle protein synthesis following treatment of diabetic rats with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and des(1-3)IGF-I. Biochem J. 276 (Pt 2):547-54.

Ullman M, Ullman A, Sommerland H, Skottner A, Oldfors A. (1990) Effects of growth hormone on muscle regeneration and IGF-I concentration in old rats. Acta Physiological Scand. 140:521-525.

Watson DL, Francis GL, Ballard FJ. (1992) Factors in ruminant colostrum that influence cell growth and murine IgE antibody responses. Journal of Dairy Research. 59:369-380.

Tavakkol, A, et al. Expression of growth hormone receptor, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 receptor mRNA and proteins in human skin. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 99(3):343-349 (1992). Receptors for growth hormone and IGF-1 were isolated from human skin, indicating that skin cells may have the ability to react directly to growth hormone stimulation.

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