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Bitzan, M.M.; Gold, B.D.; Philpott, D.J.; Huesca, M.; Sherman, P.M.; Karch, H.; Lissner, R.; Lingwood, C.A.; Karmali, M.A.; Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobactor mustelae binding to lipid receptors by bovine colostrum. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 177:955-961, April 1998.

Bitzan, MM, et al. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae binding to lipid receptors by bovine colostrum. Journal of Infectious Disease 177(4):955-961 (1998). H. pylori and H. mustelae (a gastric pathogen of ferrets) are both bound by lipid receptors (phosphatidylethanolamine, gangliotetraosylceramide and gangliotriaosyl-ceramide) in the gut, allowing them to carry out their pathogenic activities. Bovine colostrum, however, was shown to prevent binding of the pathogens to these lipid receptors even though there was no detectable anti-H. pylori antibody activity in the colostrum.

Bolke E, Jehle PM, Hausmann F, Daubler A, Wiedeck H, Steinbach G, Storck M, Orth K., Shock. 2002 Jan;17(1):9-12. Related Articles, Links, Preoperative oral application of immunoglobulin-enriched colostrum milk and mediator response during abdominal surgery. Department of Surgery, University of Ulm, Germany.

Butler, J. E. Immunoglobulins of the Mammary Secretions. Chapter Five. in: Lactation: A Comprehensive Treatise. Vol. 3. Eds. B. L. Larson and V. R. Smith. pp. 217-252. Academic Press. New York. 1974.

Casswall, TH, et al. Bovine anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies for oral immunotherapy. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 37(12):1380-1385 (2002). Bovine colostrum with high titers against H. pylori was given to H. pylori infected mice. Comparison of treated mice with control mice showed a 50-66% cure rate for H. pylori infection in treated mice. Binding studies also showed that the colostrum prevented binding of the H. pylori.

Christopher-Hennings, J., et al., lmmunocompromise in gnotobiotic pigs induced by verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (Olll:NM). Infect. Immun. 1993. 61: p. 2304-2308.

da Costa, RS, et al. Characterization of iron, copper and zinc levels in the colostrum of mothers of term and pre-term infants before and after pasteurization. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 54(2):111-117 (2003). Milk samples were collected from mothers from day 1 to day 7 postpartum. Milk that was pasteurized showed some diminution of zinc, copper and iron levels, but not to a significant degree. Sufficient levels remained in the pasteurized milk to supply the needs of the new-born infants.
Doyle, P. S. Anti-Cryptosporiduim antibodies inhibit infectivity in vitro and in 9 vivo. Infection and Immunity 61(10):4079-4084. Oct. 1993.

Ellison, RT III, Giehl, TJ. Killing of gram-negative bacteria by lactoferrin and lysozyme. Journal of Clinical Investigation 88(4):1080-1091 (1991). Lactoferrin and lysozyme act together to kill gram-negative bacteria, such as Vibrio cholerae (cholera), Salmonella typhimurium (food poisoning) and Eschericia coli. The lactoferrin attaches to and destroys the cell wall of the bacteria, allowing the lysozyme to enter and lyse (burst) the organisms.

Fayer R, Perryman LE, Riggs MW.J Parasitol. 1989 Feb;75(1):151-3. Related Articles, Links, Hyperimmune bovine colostrum neutralizes Cryptosporidium sporozoites and protects mice against oocyst challenge. Zoonotic Diseases Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705.

Flanigan T, Marshall R, Redman D, Kaetzel C, Ungar B. J Protozool. 1991 Nov-Dec;38(6):225S-227S. Related Articles, Links, In vitro screening of therapeutic agents against Cryptosporidium: hyperimmune cow colostrum is highly inhibitory. Department of Medicine, University Hospitals, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.

Funatogawa K, Ide T, Kirikae F, Saruta K, Nakano M, Kirikae T. Microbiol Immunol. 2002;46(11):761-6. Related Articles, Links, Use of immunoglobulin enriched bovine colostrum against oral challenge with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mice. Southern Direct Meat Products Inspection Office, Tochigi, Tochigi 328-0033, Japan.

Holloway, NM, et al. Serum immunoglobulin G concentrations in calves fed fresh and frozen colostrum. Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association 219(3):357-359 (2001). No significant difference was found between the IgG concentrations of fresh bovine colostrum and frozen and thawed bovine colostrum.

Ho, P.C., and Lawton, J.W.M. Human colostral cells: Phagocytosis and killing of E. Coli and C. Albicans. The Journal of Pediatrics. Vol. 93, No. 6, pp. 910-915.

Kim, K., et al., In vitro and in vivo neutralizing activity of human colostrum and milk against purified toxins A and B of Clostridium difficile. T. Infect. Dis. 1985. 150: p. 57-61.

Gopal, PK, and Gill, HS. Oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in bovine milk and colostrum. British Journal of Nutrition 84(Suppl.1):S69-S74 (2000). Another way colostrum helps protect against infections is through the oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates it contains. These are complex sugars which compete for binding sites in the GI tract with pathogens.

Graczyk TK, Cranfield MR, Bostwick EF., J Parasitol. 2000 Jun;86(3):631-2. Related Articles, Links, Successful hyperimmune bovine colostrum treatment of Savanna monitors (Varanus exanthematicus) infected with Cryptosporidium sp. Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

Huppertz HI, Rutkowski S, Busch DH, Eisebit R, Lissner R, Karch H., J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1999 Oct;29(4):452-6. Related Articles, Links, Bovine colostrum ameliorates diarrhea in infection with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, shiga toxin-producing E. Coli, and E. coli expressing intimin and hemolysin. Children's Hospital, The University of Wurzburg, Germany.

Korhonen, H, et al. Milk immunoglobulins and complement factors. British Journal of Nutrition 84(Suppl.1):S75-S80 (2000). Bovine colostrum contains three main classes of immunoglobulin IgG (IgG1 75% and IgG2), IgM and IgA, plus hemolytic and bactericidal complement. Complement is a complex group of proteins which act in concert with antibodies to inactivate and/or kill pathogens.

Korhonen, H, et al. Bactericidal effect of bovine normal and immune serum, colostrum and milk against Helicobacter pylori. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 78(6):655-662 (1995). Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of gastritis and ulcers in humans. Serum and colostrum from non-immunized Friesian cows were found to be highly bactericidal against H. pylori. Post-colostral milk did not show any bactericidal effect against H. pylori.

Lilius, EM, Marnila, P. The role of colostral antibodies in prevention of microbial infections. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 14(3): 295-300 (2001). Colostrum offers passive protection against a variety of microbial pathogens in the form of specific immunoglobulin A, G and M antibodies. It is especially effective in the prevention of various gastroenteric infections.

Lilius EM, Marnila P. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2001 Jun;14(3):295-300. Related Articles, Links, The role of colostral antibodies in prevention of microbial infections. Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Masson, PL, et al. An iron-binding protein common to many external secretions. Clinica Chemica Acta 14:735 (1966). Lactoferrin inhibits the growth of siderophilic (iron-loving) bacteria and Candida albicans.

Majumdar, A. S., et al., Protective properties of anti-cholera antibodies in human colostrum. Infect. Immun. 1982. 36:p. 962965.
McClead, R., et al., Resistance of bovine anti-cholera toxin IgG to in vitro and in vivo proteolysis. Pedia. Res. 1982.6: p. 227-231.

McClead RE Jr, Butler T, Rabbani GH. Am J Med. 1988 Dec;85(6):811-6. Related Articles, Links, Orally administered bovine colostral anti-cholera toxin antibodies: results of two clinical trials. Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University 43205.

Morris, J. A., et al., Passive protection of lambs against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Role of antibodies in serum and colostrum. T. Med. Microbiol.1980. 13: p. 265-271.

McClead RE, Gregory SA. Infect Immun. 1984 May;44(2):474-8. Related Articles, Links, Resistance of bovine colostral anti-cholera toxin antibody to in vitro and in vivo proteolysis.

Michalek SM, McGhee JR. (1977) Effective immunity to dental caries: passive transfer to rats to antibodies to streptococcus mutans elicits protection. Infection and Immunity. 17:644-650.

Opdebeeck JP, Norcross NL. Am J Vet Res. 1985 Jul;46(7):1561-4. Related Articles, Links, Antibodies in bovine serum and lacteal secretions to capsular antigens of Staphylococcus aureus.

Ogra, PL, et al. Colostrum derived immunity and maternal neonatal interaction. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 409: 82-92 (1983). Peyer's patches are found throughout the intestinal tract, and groups of similar immunoactive cells are found in the bronchial mucosa. Both the intestinal and bronchial immunoactive cell groups respond to allergens, antigens and pathogens by neutralizing or destroying them. In newborns, these special cell groups are not immediately operative but protection is provided by a variety of immune factors from the mother's colostrum. Antibodies found in colostrum protect against Eschericia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio cholera, Bacteriodes fragilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bordtella pertussis, Clostridium diphtheria, Clostridium tetani, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans.

Paulsson, MA, et al. Thermal behavior of bovine lactoferrin in water and its relation to bacterial interaction and antibacterial activity. Journal of Dairy Science 76(12):3711-3720 (1993). Lactoferrin which was either unheated or pasteurized showed similar activity, while lactoferrin exposed to UHT treatment decreased its ability to bind to bacterial species and destroyed its ability to inhibit bacterial growth.

Spik, G., et al., Bacteriostasis of a milk-sensitive strain of E. coli immunoglobulins and iron-binding proteins associated with colostrum. Immunology 1981. 35: p. 663-670.

Seifert J, Molkewehrum M, Oesser S, Nebermann L, Schulze C. Eur Surg Res. 2002 Jan-Apr;34(1-2):68-72. Related Articles, Links, Endotoxin inactivation by enterally applied colostrum of different composition. Surgical Research, Department of Surgery and Thoracic Surgery, Kiel, Germany.

Stephan W, Dichtelmuller H, Lissner R. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1990 Jan;28(1):19-23. Related Articles, Links, Antibodies from colostrum in oral immunotherapy. Biotest Pharma GmbH, Forschungsabteilung, Frankfurt.
Tacket CO, Binion SB, Bostwick E, Losonsky G, Roy MJ, Edelman R. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Sep;47(3):276-83. Related Articles, Links, Efficacy of bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrate in preventing illness after Shigella flexneri challenge. Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.

Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Link H, Hoang Y, Guesry P, Hilpert H, Levine MM. N Engl J Med. 1988 May 12;318(19):1240-3. Related Articles, Links, Protection by milk immunoglobulin concentrate against oral challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.

Takakura N. et al."Effect of orally administered bovine lactoferrin on the immune response in the oral candidiasis murine model."J Med Microbiol. 2004 Jun;53(Pt 6):495-500.

Ushijima H, Dairaku M, Mukoyama A. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1991 Jan;65(1):54-60. Related Articles, Links,[Bacteriostatic activity of bovine colostrum][Article in Japanese],Department of Enteroviruses, National Institute of Health.

Wada, T, et al. The therapeutic effect of bovine lactoferrin in the host infected with Helicobacter pylori. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 34(3):238-243 (1999). Mice infected with H. pylori were given a daily dose of bovine lactoferrin for 2-4 weeks. Their intestines were then examined for bacterial content. Numbers of H. pylori were reduced to 10% of pre-lactoferrin levels and greatly decreased the numbers of H. pylori bound to the intestinal wall. Serum antibody titer to H. pylori were reduced to practically zero, indicating that the immune response of the host was no longer recognizing H. pylori infection. Therefore it was deduced that lactoferrin has a direct antibacterial effect on H. pylori infection and prevents binding of the pathogen to the intestinal lining.

Wada, N., et al., Neutralizing activity against Clostridium difficile toxins in the supernatants of cultured colostral cells. Infect. Immun.. 1980.29: p. 545-550.

Watzl, B., et al., Enhancement of resistance to Cryptosporidium parvum by pooled bovine colostrum during murine retroviral infection. Am. T. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1993. 48(4): p. 519-523.

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