Ahmed, L, Islam, SN, Khan, MN, Huque, S, Ahsan, M. (2004) Antioxidant micronutrient profile (vitamin E, C, A, copper, zinc, iron) of colostrum: association with maternal characteristics. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 50(6):357-8. Maternal characteristics had no influence on the profile of nutrient profile of antioxidants in colostrum.
Boldogh, I, et al. Modulation of 4HNE-mediated signaling by proline-rich peptides from ovine colostrum. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 20(2):125-134 (2003). Colostrinin down regulates lipid peroxidation, inhibits glutathione depletion and reduces intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is one more way that colostrum demonstrates antioxidant activity.
Borissenko, M. Glutathione: A powerful anti-oxidant found in colostrum. NZMP August 2002. Both glutathione and its chemical predecessors are present in large quantities in colostrum. As glutathione is not absorbed directly, glutathione production in the body can only be accomplished by supplementation with its antecedents, cystine, glycine and glutamic acid, all of which are abundant in colostrum.
Buescher, ES, McIlheran, SM. Antioxidant properties of human colostrum. Pediatric Research 24(1):14-19 (1988). Colostrum reduces ferricytochrome C in polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) and also disrupts other metabolic and enzymatic activities of PMNs which are crucial in PMN respiratory burst mediation of acute inflammation, showing that colostrum is a powerful antioxidant.
Buescher, ES, McIlheran, SM. Colostral antioxidants: separation and characterization of two activities in human colostrum. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 14(1):47-56 (1992). Colostrum interferes with the production of PMN respiratory burst products in two ways, ascorbate and uric acid.
Kurz, DJ, et al. Chronic oxidative stress compromises telomere integrity and accelerates the onset of senescence in human endothelial cells. Journal of Cell Science 117:2417-2426 (2004). Oxidative stress due to the buildup of oxidization by-products has been linked to the onset of cell senescence in blood vessel lining cells by disrupting telomere integrity. Telomeres are the "tails" of the chromosomes, the length of which determine the number of cell divisions a cell can undergo before reaching its limit. Glutathione, a powerful natural antioxidant, is crucial in maintaining telomere integrity.
Satue-Gracia, MT, et al. Lactoferrin in infant formulas: effect on oxidation. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 48(10):4984-4990 (2000). Commercially modified infant formulas based on cow's milk have significantly less lactoferrin than whole milk, and soy formulas contain none, even though lactoferrin acts as an iron transporter protein. Adding lactoferrin to infant formulas results in the dual benefit of increased iron absorption and acts as an antioxidant and antimicrobial to extend the shelf life of the formulas.
Shigenaga, MK, et al. Oxidative damage and mitochondrial decay in aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91(23):10771-10778 (1994). The major source of oxidative damage are oxidants generated by mitochondria in the cells of the body. Mitochondrial function declines with age, including decreased membrane fluidity, proton leakage across the inner mitochondrial membrane, and decreases levels of cardiolipin, an important lipid which supports the functioning of proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Wakabayashi, H, et al. Inhibition of iron/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation by an N-terminal peptide of bovine lactoferrin and its acylated derivatives. Bioscience, Biotechnology, Biochemistry 63(5):955-957 (1999). Lactoferrin also plays an important antioxidant role in colostrum by preventing lipid peroxidation.