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Buescher, ES, McWilliams-Koeppen, P. Soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) receptors in human colostrum and milk bind to TNF-alpha and neutralize TNF-alpha bioactivity. Pediatric Research 44(1):37-42 (1998). The ability of colostrum to modulate the inflammatory response is unique. One of the ways in which it does this is through TNF-a receptor proteins, which are found in colostrum. These bind to TNF-a, which inactivates the TNF-a. TNF-a is the activator of the entire inflammatory cascade, so by controlling its activity, colostrum controls the degree of the inflammatory response and can shut it off altogether.

Collins, AM, et al. Bovine milk, including pasteurized milk, contains antibodies directed against allergens of clinical importance to man. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology 96:362-367 (1991). The presence of antibodies against many of the most common allergies in man, including ryegrass pollen, house dust mites, Aspergillus mold and wheat gluten, were detected in bovine colostrum.

Delespesse, G. Polypeptide factors from colostrum. US Patent #5,371,073 (1994). IgE (the immunoglobulin involved in allergic response) binding factors (IgE-bf) and IgE suppressor activity (IgE-SF) obtained from colostrum have been successfully used to treat allergies.

Elrod, KC, et al. Lactoferrin, a potent tryptase inhibitor, abolished late-phase airway responses in allergic sheep. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine 156:375-381 (1997). Tryptase, a digestive enzyme, has been implicated in various aspects of asthma, including bronchoconstriction and airway hyperreactivity. Lactoferrin has been shown to inhibit tryptase activity, thus relieving the symptoms of asthma.

Goldman, AS, et al. Anti-inflammatory properties of human milk. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 75(5):689-695 (1986). The major anti-inflammatory components found in human milk (and bovine colostrum) include anti-proteases, lactoferrin, lysozyme, secretory IgA, and a number of antioxidants, including cysteine, ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene.

Keech, A.M., Peptide Immunotherapy: The Use of Bovine Colostrum Proline-Rich Polypeptides in Cytokine Modulation for the Alternative Relief of Allergic Symptoms. 2007 AAAAI Annual Meeting, San Diego, February 23-27 (to be published).

LeFranc-Millot C, Vercaigne-Marko D, Wal J. -M, et al. (1996) Comparison of the IgE titers to bovine colostral G immunoglobulins and the F(ab')2 fragments in sera of patients allergic to milk. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 110:156-162.
Murphey, DK, Buescher, ES. Human colostrum has anti-inflammatory activity in a rat subcutaneous air pouch model of inflammation. Pediatric Research 34(2):208-212 (1993). In an experimental animal model using subcutaneous air pouches in rats, colostrum showed significant anti-inflammatory activity.

Savilahti, E, Tainio, VM, Salmenpera, L, Arjomaa, P, Kallio, M, Perheentupa, J, Siimes, MA. Low colostral IgA associated with cow's milk allergy. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 80(12):1207-1213 (1991).

Savilahti E, Tainio VM, Salmenpera L, Arjomaa P, Kallio M, Perheentupa J, Siimes MA. (1991) Low colostral IgA associated with cow's milk allergy.Acta Pediatr Scan. 80:1207-1213.

Selo I, Clement G, Bernard H, et al. (1999) Allergy to bovine B-lactoglobulin: specificity of human IgE to tryptic peptides. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 29:1055-1063.

Yoshioka, Y, Kudo, S, Nishimura, H, Yajima, T, Kishihara, K, Saito, K, Suzuki, T, Suzuki, Y, Kuroiwa, S, Yoshikai, Y. (2005) Oral administration of bovine colostrum stimulates intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes to polarize Th1-type in mice. International Immunopharmacology 5(3):581-90. Stimulating the Th1 immune response from the Th2 skewed immune response in infancy is important to reduce the incidence of allergies. Mice given colostrum showed a polarization to Th1 response in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes while intestinal microflora and IgA levels showed no change. This suggests that colostrum may protect from both infectious disease and allergies mediated by Th2 type responses.

"Clinical studies show that IgE found in bovine colostrum, may be responsible for regulating allergic response," according to Drs. Tortora, Funke and Cast in Microbiology.

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